Preparing for a CEO Shakeup

 
Emma Lovett
12 September 2017
 

By Applied Influence Group

For anyone who’s part of a senior leadership team, a change in CEO can be as exciting as it is scary. But ‘preparing the ground’ for this transition can make a huge difference to your own relationships inside and outside the business, and more importantly, give the new leader the best chance of success.

In the military, it would be unusual for a Commanding Officer (read, CEO) to be in post for longer than 2.5 years. So, there was plenty of opportunity to practice! Interestingly, for those in the Specialist Intelligence world, we used the same influence processes and tools to ‘Prepare the ground’ as best we could for a new CO, as we did to understand complex networks of insurgents to effect large scale, strategic influence in the battlespace. The steps described below are one slice of this influence strategy tool kit, borne out of operational military experience.

SET SOME GOALS

So what do we mean by ‘preparing the ground’? Quite simply, it is influencing stakeholders for the purpose of capitalising on the change when it happens for mutually beneficial gain. At the Applied Influence Group, we consider the business outcomes of influence in 3 ways (client related, internal to the organisation, and external to the organisation) and this context is no different. Therefore, examples of business outcomes you might seek are:

Any client concerns regarding a potential change to agenda or direction are understood and removed
The expectations of strategic suppliers are understood and managed
Employees’ fears surrounding the repercussions that might directly affect them are dealt with to avoid affecting individual or group performance

 

The first rule of influence is always to understand, so once you’ve identified the business outcome you want to affect, you can map the landscape in order to influence it.

INFLUENCE MAPPING

Let’s take the first example: understanding and removing any client concerns regarding the change of CEO. How might you map the relevant stakeholders to know who you need to influence and how?

Step one. Consider which stakeholders have the most impact over this issue (i.e. concerns regarding the change).

This isn’t just about those that hold the greatest authority or decision-making power, but identifying key stakeholders that could influence decision makers, even those that sit outside the client organisation. We often find that PAs and junior stakeholders sit on here.

Map the stakeholders on a diagram that looks much like an archery target with 3 circles; those that have the most impact over the issue in the middle, and the lesser the impact the further out you go. To represent each stakeholder, you can draw a small circle with the person’s initials in the middle, or have a look-up table if it gets too crowded.

Step two. Understand the relationships between stakeholders.

You might develop your own system for representing the relationships, but at the very least denote a strong relationship with a double/thick line, a known relationship with a single line and an assessed relationship (you don’t know for sure) with a dotted line between two stakeholders.

Step three. Consider your existing influence over these stakeholders.

Add in the ‘you’ factor. The criteria used for this is up to you, but be consistent. Identify those that your organisation/team have strong, average, weak or no influence over.

Step four. What can you see that you couldn’t before?

Is there a stakeholder with high impact on the issue (a decision maker for instance), that you know to have existing concerns about the change, but with whom you have limited influence?

Can you identify another stakeholder that has a strong relationship with this decision maker, with whom you have strong influence over that can become a bridge to reach them?

Or, can you identify that you have no bridge to this decision maker at all and therefore need to increase your own influence over other stakeholders around them.

Can you identify a stakeholder that you have strong influence over and has high impact on the issue and strong relationships with detractors, that can become an influence agent on your behalf?

WHAT’S CHANGED?

Once the new CEO is in, you might want to re-map the same issue to see what’s changed.

How has your organisation’s influence over the same stakeholders changed in that time? Has there been a shift in relationships or new ‘nodes’ of influence been created? Has there been an increase in the number of influential stakeholders that still hold concerns?

Monitoring a particular issue (like client concerns) using this mapping tool can highlight potential problems for your CEO before they occur.

Looking at these maps and asking ‘what can you see?’ will start to reveal your path to successful influence and set your new CEO up for success.

To find out more about the Applied Influence Group, please visit our website.

 

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The latest is "No deal is better than a bad deal". No deal in fact is a deal. One that puts the UK on the world default trade rules set down by the WTO, and they are very bad indeed compared to where we are now. On the EU side, we have Michel Barnier saying he is 'not in a mood to compromise'. Intransigence abounds, and we seem to be heading for lose/lose, not win/win. What we are seeing is the hard reality of complex negotiations. There is a table in the centre. On one side is the UK Conservative party. On the other, the EU negotiation team. But behind each is a mess of interests, personalities and positions that have somehow to be reconciled and managed. Rule 2 – Principles not positions For the EU side, there are 27 sovereign governments, ranging from the hard right in Poland to the pro-European in Germany and France and leftist Greece. At one level, these negotiations are about the UK exit, but on a far more important level for Europe, how these negotiations are undertaken and the result that emerges could strengthen the EU or tear it apart completely. Up against the principle of European solidarity and peace, the UK might be at the table, but they are a small sideshow to the main event. For the UK side it is just as complex. In the Conservative party itself there are Remain, Soft Brexit and Hard Brexit factions. Then we have the reluctant Brexiteers of the Labour party, and the Remainers of the LibDems and the SNP. The Conservatives are a minority government, being kept in power by a small, very socially conservative Northern Irish party (another negotiation). There are cross party alliances being formed in the Commons. It is all about as orderly as a box of frogs. Different positions abound, from Jacob Rees Mogg's “if it’s good enough in India we’ll accept it here” on emission standards to the SNPs threat of another independence vote if they don't like the result (although the latest election result appears to have weakened their hand just as it has the Hard Brexiteers). It just shows what Brexit has become in the UK - a subject of internal party wrangling. Victory looks like a win in the next general election. The Europeans are (at least for the Right) the whipping boys to be blamed and demonised for all the ills of the world, in their quest for dominance of the UK. A bad process, a bad deal, and the ability to blame the Europeans for it might just be the outcome they are looking for... All of which is about the second rule of negotiation. Understand the principles behind the stated positions. Only if you get what your side and the other side really care about will you understand what to give and how to get a good result. Looking at the principles playing out on each side at the moment, I'm nervous. Rule 3 – Know the game you are playing But I do have hope. The last UK election gave a great example of what happens when you lose track of your most important stakeholder, and misunderstand the game you are playing. In 'Game Theory', there are finite and infinite games. In a finite game, there is a winner. In negotiation, this is win/lose. In an infinite game, the game never stops, so there is no winner, only staying in the game. In negotiation, this is win/win. Think of a football match. 2 sides, 90 minutes, the only purpose is to win. By fair means or foul. It is a finite game that has an end. So, if one player finds a way to cheat, maybe a dive in the penalty box or a sly tug of the shirt, there are no negative consequences as long as the ref doesn't see. This game is Win/Lose. Now change the game. Still football. But widen the view. The footballers are playing for their contracts. They are wondering about their next move, or getting into their national team. Before and after the game it is all hugs and handshakes. Score a goal, and the scorer runs to the fans, kissing the club badge on their shirt. In the end that is where the money comes from, and their relationship with their fellow professionals and the fans will in the long term greatly determine their career. The aggregate of those fan relationships and how well the players play determines how many people watch, and therefore what their wages are. This is the game footballers and clubs really play, and it never ends. This is the position the negotiators find themselves in. If they try to 'win' the Brexit negotiation, they will both lose. Just over a month ago the Conservative right tried to 'win' by calling a snap election on their version of Brexit, and talked openly of crushing the Labour Party and finishing it as a power in British politics. They tried to 'win' British politics. Two months ago, I was thinking that History would judge them harshly. It turns out I was wrong. History may well do, but the electorate got there first. From a very low start, Labour came within a whisker of the Tory popular vote, and added together left leaning parties received more votes than right leaning ones (if less seats). The Tories forgot who they were supposed to be fighting for. It is about the electorate. A party that forgets that and focuses on the opposition instead will find itself in trouble as the Conservatives just have. In this negotiation, both the EU and the UK must remember who their real stakeholders are.  If the deal they strike does not work for their electorates, the people will judge them harshly way before history gets a chance to. That is my beacon of hope. Negotiation is everywhere The couple of principles of negotiations mentioned here were cemented a long time ago (early ‘80s) by Fischer & Ury. Negotiation skills and practice has come a long way since. Max Bazerman’s Negotiating rationally (1991) looked at how cognitive and motivational biases make for bad negotiations and bad decisions. The US airlines industry as a collective lost $3 billion in the ‘90s in giving away free seats due a competitive escalation of commitment in their frequent flyer programmes. And these companies were run by smart managers. Harvard Business School’s Deepak Malhotra has written (and tweeted) a lot about explosive negotiations and conflict escalation in his latest book “Negotiating the impossible”. His HBR piece on “When winning is everything” is a masterpiece on escalation of commitment. Good negotiation skills stand alongside selling and influencing as key life skills whether you are an employee, an entrepreneur, a manager or a government leader. If you want to find out more about how a negotiation works, try out TechUK’s one day course on Negotiating Fundamentals. TechUK is a membership organisation of 900 companies collectively employing more than 700,000, about half of all tech sector jobs in the UK. The last one of the year runs on the 14th of July: http://www.techuk.org/training/management-skills-training/item/10834-negotiation-fundamentals-and-skills Neil Marshall is Development Director of ChangeSchool. ChangeSchool believe elite business education should be for everyone, not just the few. Reach him at neilm@changeschool.org or +44 7967 092015

04 July 2017

The Cyber-Value Connection

Cyber risk has risen to the top of the corporate agenda but few company leaders are aware of the full extent of damage caused by a cyber breach — or the full costs. CGI has worked with Oxford Economics to create a rigorous model that captures the damage done by cyber breach to a company’s share price. The Cyber-Value Connection reveals that share prices fall by an average of 1.8 per cent on a permanent basis following a severe breach. To put that in context, investors in a typical FTSE 100 firm would be worse off by an average of £120 million. However, in some extreme cases, breaches have wiped as much as 15 per cent off affected companies’ valuations, substantially more than this sum. The damage to shareholder value is significant today — but The Cyber-Value Connection analysis suggests severe cyber breach will become even more costly in the future as industry analysts include cyber as a factor affecting valuation and new regulation demands that companies disclose incidents. Clearly, the CEO has responsibility for increasing company value. With the link between cyber breach and company value established in this report, it is clear the CEO’s responsibility must also include direction and governance of cyber security. The Cyber-Value Connection concludes with advice on how they can challenge their organisation and put in place effective governance. Key findings of the 2016 Cyber in the Boardroom: UK plc at risk paper included: • Over a third of C-suite executives believe a cyber security breach will affect their organisation in the next 12 months • The average annual cost of a breach is estimated at £1.2m, although damage to a brand's reputation is of most concern • 81% of boardrooms say they've increased scrutiny of their cyber defences since 2015 The full Cyber Value Connection report is available here, or Cyber Security in the Boardroom: UK plc at risk can be viewed here. By Andrew Rogoyski, Vice President, Cyber Security, CGI UK www.cgi-group.co.uk/experts/andrew-rogoyski

26 June 2017

Are you progressing to plan with your IT platform implementation?

New core IT platform implementations are complex, challenging and often one-off change events, that your own team have not been through before.  The programme organisation, workstreams and activities involved can be extensive. How do you implement a new IT platform within budget and with minimal business​ disruption? Click on the infographic below to discover: How to deliver a new bank ready platform How to implement a back book migration The key elements to succeed W: www.xceedgroup.com  E: info@xceedgroup.com T: 020 7480 0030​

13 June 2017

Don’t make your sourcing strategy the wrongsourcing strategy!

Faced with fundamental IT challenges, including digital transformation, cost reduction, scaling IT capacity and managing operational risk, what do you do about outsourcing and insourcing?  Do you make it all or part of your IT Estate? There is an ever increasing number of outsourced projects taking place, yet there is an ongoing stream of disastrous results being reported in the press. Where is it all going wrong? Xceed Group has created an infographic explaining where outsourcing can go wrong and the steps to take to ensure your outsourcing project is a success. Click on the infographic below and discover: How outsourcing can tackle fundamental IT challenges Where it can all go wrong How to avoid being the next disaster www.xceedgroup.com  info@xceedgroup.com T:020 7480 0030

05 June 2017

The Countdown has Begun. Are you ready for GDPR?

(GDPR) General Data Protection Regulation will be enforced from May 2018. If you manage Personally Identifiable Information (PII) for EU citizens, this regulation will impact your business. The following infographic, brought to you by Xceed, explores what you need to know about GDPR, including: How it is different from current regulations What counts as PII The implications of non-compliance Who your data processors are www.xceedgroup.com  info@xceedgroup.com T:020 7480 0030

31 May 2017

They’ve taken my idea! My business is ruined before it’s started!

By Viren Lall, Managing Director of ChangeSchool.org In our teaching at different London universities, we are often asked ‘How do I get an original idea for my business? Every time I check, my latest idea has already been done!’. A fundamental principle of entrepreneurship is that everything starts with you – who you are, who you know and what you know. Think Apple were the first to think of the iPhone? Check out GO, a US firm from 1992! What Apple did was started with what they could do already – the iPod and iTunes. They added a phone to it. So the place to start is with you. Start with a skill that you have, and think of a business that you can build around it. Your idea is an opportunity unique to you A new business idea is closely tied to the skills and the passions of the entrepreneur. In workshops we have conducted for several years, we have never found two people with the same idea. In a thought experiment we conduct with the participants, we ask people to swap ideas and ask if they would like to pursue someone else’s idea. The answer is an overwhelming no. Why? The idea is only a true opportunity when an individual backs it. Is the opportunity uniquely mine? Do I have the skills around it? Can I build a team around the concept? Is the timing right? Do I have the skills, passions and connections to pursue it? You can see that it is highly unlikely that two individuals feel exactly the same way about an idea. The world is teeming with entrepreneurial ideas, most of which die because they are not validated, improved and executed. If an idea was that easy to copy, it wasn’t great in the first place In this talk by James Caan, he answers a question raised by a participant on whether she should share her idea with others. As a successful entrepreneur, Caan has always discussed his idea with others. He doesn’t ask if it was a good idea, as he knows that all you will get from people are responses to make you feel good. What he wants is to find flaws. What would make this idea fail? What must he do by way of experiments, conversations and validation activities to make the idea a really robust opportunity? https://youtu.be/YwcLFv5L810 It’s all in the execution and hitting milestones Entrepreneurial businesses that just have an idea are the highest risk, lowest value ventures. As you move through the journey of developing the concept, validating with your target customers, building a proof of concept, a minimum viable product, proof of market and revenue and proof of growth potential, you increase the value of the idea and the venture step by step. This diagram explains the journey. This is covered in detail in their Spring 2010 article on MIT Sloan review, the conclusion is “The typical start-up process, whether in nascent entrepreneurial ventures or in the innovation units of established businesses, is largely driven by poorly conceived business plans based on untested assumptions. This process is seriously flawed. Most new ventures, even those with venture capital or corporate backing, share one common characteristic: They fail. There is a better way to launch new ideas — without wasting years of time and loads of investors’ money. This better way is about discovering a business model that really works: a Plan B, like those of Google Inc. and Starbucks Corp., which grows out of the original idea, builds on it and once it’s in place, helps the business grow rapidly and prosper.” In summary, your idea is going to change. Many times. So don’t worry too much about the original idea – just get on with it. But shouldn’t I protect my idea?  In fact, unless your idea is a based on a unique invention, spending money and effort on patenting is counterproductive and just a distraction from getting started and building your market. It will rob you of valuable focus and resources that should be put towards building your company. The video above by James Caan covers this topic beautifully. Getting started is the key The point is, you start with you and you start somewhere. Because then you have something to talk to customers about. Customers then buy or don’t buy. You learn more about what they need or want, and you change what you do to win more customers and build a business. Whatever your business ends up looking like, one thing it won’t be is the same as when you started. There are hundreds if not thousands of great books on entrepreneurship, “Getting to Plan B…” by Mullins and Komisar is a great one to look at look at economic models and sustainability. Komisar’s book “The monk and riddle” is an interesting narrative on why a purpose is important behind building a better faster cheaper alternative and Mullins’ previous book “The new business road test” is a must read on what you need to do before writing a business plan. If you want to learn more about how to start a business, you will find evidence based, research backed, strategies that successful startups use here. Includes how to launch products, enter new markets and develop customers. If you want to know where to get help, you will find researched options on what support you may need at each stage of your business here. Use it to help you avoid the most critical mistakes that cause business failures.    

16 May 2017

The Technology Divide is Growing, Don’t Leave People Behind – By Magnus Jern

The Digital Divide (Source:ReadITQuik) The internet has been a great force in creating a more equal society. Today 3.5 billion people have access to the internet in some form. It has democratized information, communication and education, created millions of businesses and touched on and improved so many life’s. However, at the same time the digital divide is about to increase again. While speaking about the latest mobile trends I often get the question or comment that technology development must slow down at some point. “I cannot cope with more” people say. The reality is the opposite. Technology innovation and the impact on society and our life’s is accelerating. Over the next couple of years there will be more new technologies than ever to keep up with. Many people will choose not to or won’t have option. What happens when someone doesn’t upgrade their phone every 2–3 years? What if you don’t download the latest apps for public and private transportation, healthcare, education, the messaging apps that people communicate with and make payments through the mobile phone? The technology savvy and geeks are taking over. The most valuable and profitable companies in the world are tech companies. Amazon might become the worlds first trillion dollar company. The first trillion ire could become a reality within the next 20 years and it will be a tech entrepreneur for sure. Political parties and leaders have an advantage because they understand how to use and leverage technology. Artists, actors, authors, journalists and other creative roles are more successful if they know and use technology to their advantage. Restaurants, bars and hotels depend as much on IT skills and social media as they do on the quality of their property and service. Doctors and nurses that keep up with the latest development in their field provide better care to their patients. Economists and statisticians that know how to use data visualization have a huge advantage in story telling and winning their audience. Jobs go to engineers, preferably younger engineers as fresh skills are valued higher than experience by many organizations. The world is slowly becoming cashless, local retail stores are closing and replaced with eCommerce, bank branches and ATMs disappear. This is just the beginning. Because society is changing rapidly whether we like it not. Computers leveraging Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning will be able to beat humans at almost any single skill within the next 5–10 years. This means that the computer engineers and the people that control the technology will have even more power. Homes are becoming smarter but also more complex. Every device is becoming connected. Cars drive themselves. VR and AR may cause dizziness and headaches in the short term but will extend abilities in the long term. We have to get used to talking to machines, to controlling interfaces with our eyes and motion and eventually the machines will listen to our brainwaves. Even if only half of these technologies come true within the next 10 years it will impact most people. What happens if someone doesn’t want to be or cannot be part of this change? What happens to those who are disconnected? They will be left behind. As technology leaders we have a responsibility to ensure that this doesn’t happen. We need to make sure that technology is for everyone and that people don’t feel alienated by it. That it truly makes life better for everyone! How can we contribute? Here are a couple of ideas / suggestions on where to start: • Create better products and services that solve real problems and are easy to use • Spend a few hours every month teaching your parents / grandparents how to use new technology • Volunteer to teach and share your knowledge online through videos or education for adults at a local community centre for the unemployed or elderly • Donate your old (not too old) devices to people who need them instead of leaving in the drawer and eventually throwing away What do you think? Do you agree that there is a problem? If not then why and if yes share your thoughts about how we reduce the digital divide. DMI is starting a new initiative under the Moville umbrella to ensure that our customer engagements are inclusive of everyone. We will keep you updated about the progress. This article is dedicated to my parents who gave me a big advantage in life thanks to early access to computers and learning to program. My father who’s now retired stays busy giving teachers access to advanced data visualisation tools and my mother provided feedback to this article on her iPad. Together we can bridge the digital divide! About the author Magnus is a computer engineer and serial entrepreneur as a co-founder of 8 start-ups and 3 successful exits. He’s currently Chief Innovation Officer at DMI (http://diminc.com) after the acquisition of Golden Gekko.  

09 May 2017

Retirement Planning – A Slow Start Can Be Costly

Planning for retirement is just one area in which, with the benefit of hindsight, many people wish they’d taken action earlier. How often in life do we look back and wish we had done things differently? According to a recent study, two in five pensioners regret retirement-planning mistakes which have left them struggling financially.1 Nearly one in five say that they didn’t save enough for retirement, and 15% regret not starting to save earlier in their working lives. Understandably, many of us still have misgivings about locking our money away for decades – especially if we have more immediate calls on our income. Nevertheless, if we’re serious about planning for the future, we need to put away surplus income today, since doing so funds our lifestyles tomorrow. With that in mind, how should we go about saving for life after work? Putting aside arguments over whether the current government – or a future one – will rein in pension tax privileges, there are some compelling reasons why a pension is still the most obvious answer. Pension contributions attract tax relief on the way in and they accumulate capital gains free of tax once inside. When you access your pension savings, the first 25% is normally tax-free. While you cannot draw benefits until your 55th birthday, this can also be an advantage as it restricts the temptation to tap into your retirement fund before then. Getting off the mark How much pension income you need in retirement will be determined by a number of factors, including your health, your living expenses and your desired lifestyle. Unfortunately, there’s no one-size-fits-all answer. However, the average worker in the UK earns £26,364 a year2, so a pension income of around £20,000 might seem like a reasonable target for most people. Assuming you qualify for the full single-tier State Pension of £8,094 a year3, you would need to find at least £12,000 a year from your other pensions to achieve an overall income of £20,000 per annum. Achieving this, however, can be very challenging for those on low incomes, or those with unpredictable earnings – but especially for those who delay saving. For example, someone in their mid-20s who starts saving into a defined contribution (money purchase) pension today would need to save around £250 a month to achieve an income of £12,000 by the time they reach State Pension age. Someone who delays until their mid-30s would need to put away £420 a month; and a 45-year-old who hasn’t started a pension would need to start saving around £850 a month.4 This analysis assumes that the fund would be used to purchase an annuity. Of course, under ‘pension freedoms’, people can draw down their defined contribution pension in a variety of ways; but an annuity remains a widely chosen method of providing a retirement income – and a useful yardstick against which to measure the required saving rates. Playing catch up “The sooner we start, the more choices we have later,” says Ian Price, divisional director at St. James’s Place. “The power of compound returns [gains on gains] means that 10 or 20 years can make a big difference.” “However, you should never think that it’s too late to start saving, or that you can’t catch up. There are significant opportunities to make up lost ground if you have the available means and allowances,” he adds. You can put as much as you want into your defined contribution pension each year, but you’ll normally only get tax relief on contributions up to £40,000. If your scheme operates what is called a ‘relief at source’ arrangement, your pension provider will add tax relief of 20% to your pension contributions, and then you can claim anything above the basic rate via your annual tax return. A £40,000 contribution could effectively cost a higher rate taxpayer just £24,000. Moreover, you can make use of allowances from the three previous tax years if these haven’t been utilised. This year is particularly important, especially for higher earners, as it is the final chance for pension savers to use the £50,000 allowance that was in place in 2013/14 – before it was reduced to £40,000. If it is not used before 6 April 2017, it will be lost forever. However, the fact remains that the best way to secure a comfortable retirement is to save as much as possible as early as possible in your working life, and take financial advice. The longer you delay saving, the harder it will be to build the kind of fund that will see you through retirement. Brought to you by Lynn Anderson of St. James's Place Wealth Management The value of an investment with St. James's Place will be directly linked to the performance of the funds selected and may fall as well as rise.  You may get back less than the amount invested. The levels and bases of taxation, and reliefs from taxation, can change at any time and are dependent on individual circumstances. 1 Prudential, 15 April 2016 2Office for National Statistics, 15 March 2017 3 www.gov.uk, 17 March 2017 4 Aegon.co.uk, accessed 20 March 2017; the example is based on a male who pays basic rate Income Tax, buying a single life, level annuity, and where pension contributions are invested in a default equity and bond lifestyle fund

03 May 2017

HOW TO PICK THE RIGHT IOT PARTNERS – BY MAGNUS JERN OF DMI

"If you disassemble a modern drone, VR headset, or IoT device, you'll find mostly smartphone components." -Chris Dixon of a16z Every business and organization, large and small, will be touched by IoT over the coming years whether it’s smart buildings, transportation, logistics, healthcare, retail, manufacturing, finance, energy utilization or something else. Some will be able to make it a major competitive advantage and others will just do what their competitors are doing. Typically, the need for one or multiple IoT specialized partners comes from one of these three needs: The organization has a problem that could possibly be solved using IoT technology The organization has a bunch of connected devices stemming out of different initiatives that need to be managed and/or data output that is not yet structured The organization is working on an IoT approach/strategy But with 300+ vendors claiming to have the right “IoT Platform” for your business, where do you begin? How do you pick the right IoT partners? Here’s a 3-step guide based on our experience: 1. Define the Problem Too many IoT projects start with a technology or solution being tested and implemented. Just like with any other IT projects, the greatest ROI comes from identifying and solving business problems. So, start by identifying problems that the business, customers or employees are experiencing and look at how these could be solved with technology. Use tools such as DMI Active (DMI’s methodology based on Design Thinking, Lean UX and Human-Centric Design) if you don’t already have a long list. Once you’ve identified problems, explore them to really make sure that you understand them before jumping to solution solving. Prioritise the solutions based on factors such as business impact, complexity and cost. Example: A pharma company that provides hardware to hospitals for patient treatment wants to better understand how the product is being used (utilization, location, results, etc.). This could give insights to product improvements, maintenance schedules, selling more equipment, training needs and more. A beverage company finds out through data that they are missing out on 10% of revenue from existing customers due to inventory running out before the weekly delivery. The delivery team says they need to increase the amount of trucks and drivers to solve the problem, which will increase cost substantially. Would it be possible to solve this problem with better utilization of existing trucks and drivers with the help of vehicle tracking and predictive analytics? 2. Test Concepts and Solutions With a clear problem definition, it’s time to start looking for solutions. Integrating IoT in a new product will take time. Typically, the roadmap for any hardware combining connectivity is at least 12-18 months and it’s difficult to do anything about this. The challenge is simply the combination of hardware design, software development, building and testing a prototype, and taking the product to mass market production takes time. And at the end of this cycle there’s another 6-12 months’ lead time to make major changes to the product. We believe that organizations should always attempt to test the concept/solution before embarking on big implementation and integration programs. And if it’s still necessary due to time pressure, then run the proof of concept in parallel as input to the core implementation program. Some of the 300 IoT platform providers, or one of the additional thousands of sensor and connected device suppliers, will be able to provide you with solutions that can easily be prototyped. Select one or a couple of them to evaluate. Run a proof of concept rather than pilot if possible. The pilot can be integrated into the implementation. As per previous articles on prototyping, make sure that end-user feedback is integrated every step of the way. Also, clearly define the success criteria for the proof of concept and final implementation with KPIs that can be used to track progress towards the core objectives every step along the way. Example: Let’s go back to the pharma company above. To connect the device itself and integrate sensors will take at least 2 years including development, certification, security auditing and more. The company wants to test if tracking the device usage will really be worth the effort. To start with, they identify 3 different solutions with sensors using sound, motion and electric circuit measurements and does a proof of concept with all 3 in parallel. The proof of concept is implemented and evaluated in less than 2 months and achieves the desired results. 3. Choose the Best Solution Fit for You Now the problem has been identified and a solution has been prototyped and proven to work. Now it’s time to answer the question in the title of this article. How to choose a partner that can help implement the solution. Pick a partner with relevant industry experience for the problem/solution (assuming there is one) to manage risk and minimize time to market. With hundreds of IoT companies in the market, most are specialized in specific verticals or use cases. Put together a list of the top 5-10 companies and select the ones to invite for a RFI or briefing. Make sure to keep the first implementation limited to the top 3-5 use cases really required and no more. For companies that lack in-house competencies in IoT UX design, integration, development, connected analytics and security, it might be a good idea to pick a partner to help with the end-to-end implementation. This will vastly increase the chance of achieving objectives within the desired timeline. Finally, launching the solution is only the start of the journey. Once implemented, use the data output, customer feedback and other results to optimize and improve. Example: A furniture manufacturer has identified an opportunity to improve time to market by end-to-end tracking of its products from manufacturing to stores. The concept has been proven with an early proof of concept. Now it’s time to choose a scalable solution. A list of the top 5 suppliers of IoT for logistics and supply chain applications is put together including Alien Technology, Cargo Sense, Xerafy, Arviem and maybe DHL as one of the top IoT-powered logistics companies. Cargo Sense is selected based on fit, cost and time to market. In Conclusion Always start with the problem, then test the possible solutions and finally work with best of breed partners to implement, evaluate and continue to optimize and improve. Magnus Jern, Chief Innovation Officer, www.dminc.com

11 April 2017

Focus Your Planning – Tax Year End

With the run-up to the end of the tax year fast approaching, have you taken action to avoid missing out on the valuable tax-saving allowances and opportunities that would otherwise be lost?   Below is a ten point tax checklist on valuable relief and exemptions: Ensure you have made use of your ISA allowance of £15,240. Ensure your spouse or partner has maximised their ISA allowance to fully utilise the combined allowance of £30,480. Make contributions of up to £4,080 per child into a Junior ISA to help younger generations get a head start. Those wishing to maximise pension saving should ensure they have fully utilised their annual pension allowance.  Unused pension allowances can be carried forward, but only from the three previous tax years.  If your 2016/17 allowance is fully utilised, you should review whether you have any unused allowances from the 2013/14 tax year first. If you're thinking of making a large pension withdrawal, it could make sense to spread the withdrawal over two tax years to minimise your Income Tax liability. Take advantage of your annual Capital Gains Tax (CGT) exemption by taking gains of £11,100 in the tax year.  Those with larger liabilities might look to take gains over two years, and make use of tax-free inter-spouse transfers. High earners should take steps to bring their taxable income down by making pension contributions or charitable donations.  These can help individuals rate tax band, which starts at £150,000; to regain their Personal Allowance, which starts to be withdrawn from £100,000; and avoid losing Child Benefit, which is gradually removed if one parent in the household earns more than £50,000. Use your Inheritance Tax gifting exemption of £3,000 for this year, and carry forward last year's exemption if it hasn't been utilised. If you own your own business, consider taking a dividend income and a lower basic salary to reduce National Insurance contributions (NICs).  The first £5,000 of dividend income is tax-free. Divert your pre-tax profits into a personal pension to reduce your company's liability to Corporation Tax, Income Tax, including on dividends, and NICs. Contributions will need to be paid before your company’s financial year-end for the business to qualify for the deduction in that accounting period.  In many cases, the deadline will be 31st March, 2017. You have until April 5th to act, so don't lose out! Brought to you by Lynn Anderson Ltd, Founder Member & Principal Partner Practice of St. James's Place Wealth Management www.lynnanderson.co.uk lynnanderson-practice@sjpp.co.uk An investment with St. James's Place will be directly linked to the funds you select and the value can therefore go down and well as up.  You may get back less than you invested.  An investment in a Stocks & Shares ISA will not provide the same security of capital associated with a Cash ISA.  The favourable tax treatment of ISAs may be subject to changes in legislation in the future.  The level and bases of taxation, and reliefs from taxation, can change at any time and are dependant on individual circumstances.

10 March 2017

Executive Stress – A Modern Day Malady by Cathy Harris

“I’m not sleeping, I can’t think straight and I feel overwhelmed. And I’m worried that if my colleagues find out how I’m feeling, they’ll think I’m incompetent”… Sadly, I commonly hear these complaints in my specialist coach-counselling practice. Not untypically, a corporate manager will arrive feeling anxious or depressed, and sometimes these feelings are compounded by additional struggles to cope with panic attacks, addictions or events experienced as traumatic. The first reassurance I can offer is that they’re not alone. The Centre for Mental Health estimates that presenteeism (showing up for work, but not performing) due to mental health conditions results in a whopping bill to the UK economy of £15.1 billion per annum – throwing costs for absenteeism into relief at a (mere) £8.4 billion.  Recent research from the Health and Safety Executive also makes for grim reading in revealing that in the past year, stress accounted for a hefty 37% of all work-related ill health cases, with workload pressures, tight deadlines and lack of management support cited as key culprits. These statistics sound a clarion call for HR professionals tasked with addressing the epidemic through workplace wellbeing strategies. But whilst there’s an obvious case for broadcasting the fact that mental health at work matters, if we want the message to be received, our businesses need to tune into the facts about stress; what triggers it, how to spot it, and what to do about it. And most importantly, to learn that prevention is the best cure. Let’s start by busting a myth. Stress and anxiety - and the psychological distress that results - isn’t a sign of weakness and it’s certainly nothing to be ashamed of. It’s simply an ancient, biological response to feeling under threat – part of a system designed to keep us safe. A certain amount of pressure at work keeps us focused. So, feeling anxious about a presentation can motivate us to prepare; feeling worried about job security might prompt us to look for alternative roles, feeling angry about a staff member’s behaviour could be the spur for that much-needed conversation. But it’s when these feelings are unresolved and levels of emotional arousal remain high, that the accompanying stress hormones, adrenaline and cortisol, remain in our system for too long and prevent us from resting and digesting.  Chronic levels of stress are toxic, can compromise immunity and lead to burnout. Next, the million-dollar question; what are the triggers? In a nutshell, feeling consistently stressed rather than stretched by our work. To be stretched, we need to feel secure and in control, forge open and trusting relationships and experience a sense of achievement. This is a tall order though, when you consider that we’re wired for threat. Our biological survival mechanism (the brain’s ‘security guard’) evolved to help our ancestors to get the hell out of dodge when they faced being eaten alive. The system (which operates in a threat or reward-style binary code) worked a treat with dangerous predators and of course still does. Corporate life presents few mortal threats, but unfortunately, this ancient ‘fight or flight’ mechanism can easily trigger off a disproportionate stress response in relation to things like change initiatives, job insecurity and difficult relationships. And when worrying about a potential risk turns into endless rumination, relatively minor hassles can morph into imaginary predators. Our brain doesn’t distinguish between a real or perceived threat. To quote Shakespeare’s Hamlet; “there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so”. An imagined fear can feel as real and frightening as a sabre-toothed tiger. And when our emotions are running high, our IQ literally drops. This explains why the ‘symptoms’ of being in ‘survival’ mode include feeling unable to focus and think clearly and why stressed executives are often seen to be ‘acting out’ in inflexible, defensive or aggressive ways. Stress levels are further exacerbated by the fact that many company systems, processes and practices in a post-digital world don’t align well with human being design. In particular, digitally-enhanced performance or talent management systems and rankings which require people to ‘evidence competencies’ in line with unwieldy frameworks are fundamentally anti-social. Focusing on self-protective evidence-gathering requires negative introspection – a perfect ingredient for stress! No wonder Dr. David Rock of the Neuroleadership Institute likens the anticipation of a performance review to “the feeling you get down a dark alley when you hear footsteps behind you”. An additional by-product of the vast amount of unsolicited information that lands daily in our inboxes, is that we’re letting our fingers do too much of the talking. I regularly see minor issues (which could’ve been nipped in the bud early, in conversation) escalating through unproductive email exchanges where people resort to second-guessing others’ motives and intentions, lose empathy and end up lashing out. The self-protective habit of email ‘blind copying’ further ups the ante by compromising privacy and making us feel unsafe. And when we’re lured into the trap of too many ‘all staff’ emails there’s a temptation for senior managers to get buried in detail and then end up micromanaging and overcontrolling. Inevitably, this has a knock-on effect on employee engagement - we’re problem-solving creatures, and we don’t think creatively in a mental straightjacket! Most importantly though, we’re not designed to multi-task. There’s now a raft of evidence to suggest that in a world of information overload, unmanageable executive workloads are a prime stress trigger. Edward Hallowell, a US psychiatrist has coined the term ADT – or Attention Deficit Trait to describe the toll that information overload is taking on our mental health. The ultimate price of executive ‘overdrive’ and poor self-regulation can be seen in an increase in binge working, instant gratification, addiction, anxiety and depression at work. The HR profession has a critical role to play in redesigning organisational practices and encouraging habits which create a hospitable climate in which employees can thrive.  And that’s a hot topic. But for now, here are a few simple brain-savvy stress-busters to start practising: Learn to recognize your personal stress triggers and develop strategies to manage these. When you start to feel wound-up, take a break and concentrate on breathing deeply to calm down. Focus on making the outbreath longer than the inbreath, to stimulate relaxation. Build in downtime. We work best in 90 minute bursts with 10 minute breaks. Our energy dips for a purpose – to allow us to process learning, rest, and recharge. If we push through these dips using energy boosts from caffeine and sugar, we elevate stress hormones and reduce our brain power. Less is more. Switch off your phone and devices to allow you to focus on the important stuff. Don’t drain your ‘mental battery’ surfing your inbox. Practise the habit of tuning into information from your gut. When you notice anxious feelings and thoughts, reality-check your fears with a trusted colleague to gain a fresh perspective and support. Finally, diet, sleep and exercise are the best medicine for stress. Regular exercise, like introducing a short walk into your working day, releases ‘feel good’ endorphins. Cathy Harris, Director Keychange Coaching, keychangecoaching.com  E: cathy.harris@keychangecoaching.com T: 07964 099 959

08 March 2017

Why Work in Recruitment?

What used to be viewed as a less than desirable career option is increasingly becoming the profession of choice, made attractive by its image as a fast-paced people business.  In this blog we take a look at why choosing a career in recruitment has become so appealing. Competitive Salary and Great Perks One of the main draws to the industry is that if you succeed in recruitment then your earning potential is vast.  With often uncapped commission schemes and impressive incentives such as all expenses paid holidays abroad, it is easy to see why more people are seeking out a career in recruitment.  One of our Consultants earned over £200k last year and you could do the same! Fast Progression The opportunity for promotion in this industry is second to none.  Performance is easily measurable - produce good results and you can expect to be climbing the career ladder well before you would in another role. Rewarding Recruitment changes lives.  Literally.  What could be more rewarding than that? Social Environment Recruiting is all about engaging with your candidates and clients, so if you enjoy speaking to people both over the telephone and face-to-face then recruitment is a good career choice for you.  It involves building lasting relationships with your contacts, understanding their needs and using your knowledge to help them. Competitive and Varied As a recruiter, filling each role is like entering into a competition with your competitors.  When you successfully fill these roles it is energising, exhilarating and exciting!  You’ll face a variety of assignments and challenges with every new position you work on, keeping the job interesting and continually challenging. Do you think you’ve got what it takes?  The JM Group are actively looking to recruit: Associate Recruitment Consultants – if you are a recent graduate who is driven, enjoys a challenge and would like to join one of the most established and well respected recruitment companies in the UK then we want to hear from you. Experience Consultants with a proven track record of developing business and delivering a range of quality recruitment solutions. Email your CV to us today careers@thejmgroup.com or call us 020 7251 7300.

22 February 2017

Blockchain in Financial Markets, Part 2 – By Alex Powell

Last week we published part 1 of Alex Powell’s blog which looked at the application of blockchain technology within financial markets.  Alex is a senior financial services professional working in capital markets, exchanges, asset management and asset servicing sectors.  He has served as a Partner at Accenture and EY (Ernst & Young) and has line management experience as a former COO for HSBC Securities Services.  He is currently advising on an early stage FinTech start-up.  Part 2 of Alex’s insightful blog continues this week. In my other article on Blockchain in Financial Markets, I set out what I have been seeing and working on in the application of blockchain, or distributed ledger technology (DLT) to payments and post-trade processing. Every firm in each industry sector is reviewing what changes blockchain might drive and how they can take advantage of the new technology.  Here is the rest of my synopsis of what is going on but importantly what I am actually seeing and hearing about.  Here I shall cover know your customer, reference data, asset management, custody, trade finance and insurance. Know your customer (KYC) KYC is a pretty obvious area where blockchain technology could be used to share customer information on a selective basis.  After payments and settlement (post-trade), KYC is probably the most directly obvious financial application. Since the credit crisis began, KYC has come to the fore to better tackle money laundering and fraud.  A number of financial services ‘utilities’ formed to process KYC information for the benefit of members of the utility.  The largest are Thomson Reuters, Depository Trust & Clearing Corp Clarient Global, Kyc.com a joint venture between Markit and Genpact, and SWIFT KYC Registry.  So far they appear to be using traditional technologies. There are a few players attempting to apply blockchain to KYC, mostly in the retail space.  Kyc-chain (a Hong Kong company), Innopay and PwC is assessing how a blockchain could be used for “know your customer” procedures.  The consulting firm Z/Yen is active here and also in DLT for insurance. Reference data The benefit of putting reference data such as market and client/counterparty data on a blockchain is that it eases the need to reconcile and disseminate the data. Credits Blockchain has been working on a proof of concept for a major stock exchange group and several banks and information providers are considering how data could be more easily shared and distributed. Asset management Blockchain could be totally transformative for the funds industry, both in how it operates and in reducing costs. Operational efficiency could be improved and incumbents and new entrants could make use of the technology to offer new services.  The big use cases for the asset management industry are probably in Transfer Agency, (which handles the subscription and redemption of funds), funds distribution and fund accounting which could offer shared ledgers of fund valuations. A group of fund managers including some of the largest; Schroders Aberdeen Asset Management, Columbia Threadneedle Investments, Aviva Investors, Henderson Global Investors have come together to explore areas where blockchain could be deployed. My sense is that asset managers are quite a way behind the sell side on the blockchain adoption curve. Custody I suspect that all large custodians are exploring blockchain in some capacity.  The Bank of New York Mellon, for example, is active with Settlement Coin and has made prominent hires to look at blockchain technologies. Arguably custodian banks have the most to lose if (or when) securities settlement moves on to blockchain solutions.  This is because information on settlement can be transferred to all participants seamlessly and so could flatten the custodian to sub-custodian to CSD structure which exists today, robbing them of current business or further eroding their margins. Trade Finance For the past two years, trade finance has been touted as an area up for disruption by blockchain, combined with the internet of things (by attaching radio frequency identification devices to physical assets). Barclays and start-up company Wave claim to have become the first organisations to execute a global trade transaction using blockchain technology. A letter of credit transaction between Ornua (formerly the Irish Dairy Board) and Seychelles Trading Company is the first to have trade documentation handled on the new Wave platform, with funds sent via Swift. Bank of America Merrill Lynch, HSBC and the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) are using a blockchain prototype to streamline the paper-heavy world of global trade. The consortium used the Linux Foundation open source Hyperledger Project blockchain fabric, supported by IBM Research and IBM Global Business Services. Blockchain will certainly drive changes to trade finance operation and enhance traceability and transparency. Insurance The insurance industry is going through digital transformation in terms of processing and claims management. Take telematics installed in cars which enable insurers to better forecast the likelihood of car crashes and accident claims and reduce the cost of insurance for safer drivers. Blockchain is being considered for claims management as a means of storing customer contract information and sharing it amongst insurers, then using smart-contracts to manage the claims processing.  But for this to happen it requires wide scale industry adoption using a common claims processing platform.  There could be similar benefits for the automatic underwriting of policies too.   To wrap up….. In my view, the most valuable benefit of blockchain based solutions is the ability to easily share data amongst participants and eliminate the need for multiple reconciliations.  For any use-case, this requires participants to sign up to and use the solution.  Adoption is the real challenge just like setting up any multi-participant solution. The winners in years to come will be the ones who succeed in generating the ‘network effect’ for their solution and overcome regulatory and legal obstacles.   Alex can be contacted at alex.powell@btinternet.com or https://uk.linkedin.com/in/alexapowell  

02 February 2017

Why Would You Be Led By Trump? – An analysis of Trump and Clinton’s leadership personas by Viren Lall of ChangeSchool.org

A number of short articles have appeared on this subject and quite a few from the London Business School, some even predicting that Trump’s leadership style will get him into trouble in the future. We already know that there is only so much power vested in the President, as Obama discovered, and there are counterbalancing forces that will stand in his way[1]. Trump has been a great proponent of Robert Moses[2], the public figure who transformed the landscape of New York’s public spaces by building parks and buildings, held power for nearly 44 years and was known as the master power broker in New York. Robert Moses said ‘you can’t make an omelette without breaking a few eggs’, and Trump has said ‘you can’t build skyscrapers without breaking a few heads’! Trump has quite a job to do in building his power base and coalitions if he is going to deliver on his rhetoric of “draining the swamp” as he describes Washington. As someone said the role of a social psychologist is to be descriptive of what has happened and not prescriptive about perceived difficulties of a leadership style. We are not saying that Trump is or will be a good leader or that we like him; this piece focuses solely on how Trump and Hillary came across as leaders to their electorates and the impact it may have had. A perspective on Leading Harvard University’s Howard Gardner[3], one of America’s most interesting psychologists, who applied a cognitive lens to leadership famously, said “Effective leaders create new stories that successfully wrestle with stories that already populated the minds of their followers”.[4] In this piece we look at three specific characteristics of the leadership personas of the two candidates, how they came across to their electorates, and how it may have influenced people on their choices. 1. Communicating change and buy-in: Three weeks before the election campaign we ran a course on the psychology of change for 25 CEOs. We started this session with a slide and footage of Hillary and Trumps focusing on how they came across on change. It was clear that Trump appealed to the emotional side of his audience and Hillary for the longest time in her campaign was happy to rattle off statistics. Her arguments were rational. They probably appealed to the intellectual elite. When we want to drive change, the rational argument is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. According to Chip and Dan Heath (popularised in their book Switch[5]), to make change easy for people to adopt, you have to get them in touch with your feelings and Trump was a master of creating that kind of impact. A bigger enemy, visualization of a wall… he got his audience in touch with his feelings. 2. Authenticity We interviewed a number of people, including some senior professors from UCL on their perceptions of the two candidates and how they came across. Trump, though despicable came across as authentic. He shared his flaws. He said he had beaten the system. People didn’t mind. People even admired that, wishing they could be as successful as him. When tapes revealed his locker room talk, a personality flaw, Trump did not spend much time and effort on correcting it or trying to tow a politically correct line. Truly inspirational leaders selectively reveal weaknesses and dare to be different. In their work on “Why should anyone be lead by you?” Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones[6] argue that leaders don't become great by aspiring to a list of universal character traits, and Trump trumped this one. Hillary neither revealed weaknesses - in-fact she spent enormous energy covering them up - nor did she dare to be different. People did not trust Hillary, she was too opaque. When accused of buying cheap steel from China, and bankrupting organisations to his own benefit, Trump was quick to admit he had done so because the system allowed it. The system was broken and because of how he had gotten around all the loopholes, he and not the establishment was best placed to fix it. It added to his credibility. People believed him. 3. Influencing through pre-suasion and not just persuasion Not only were Trump’s messages consistent, they were pre-suasive. In the latest work by Robert Cialdini[7] a solid influencer persuades by pre-suasion. At a talk given by Robert Cialdini earlier this month at @RSAevents, he summarised his new work by suggesting that people who can get their audience to focus on the precise of goal of their message and before delivering that message, create a mindset (through words, images, situations) that is consistent of that goal, significantly improve their power to persuade. A classic technique use by people strong at influencing is that through movements before their message they create a mindset of receptiveness for those they seek to influence. Clinton and Trump were equally good at using levers of influencing like social proof, and individual stories of personal condition. Where Trump triumphed was his emphasis on losses and putting people in a frame of mind that gave him a privileged reception of his message. People were losing their jobs to China, Mexico and others. By putting people in this frame of losses, a psychological chute of thinking, people only considered losses, losses that had occurred due to labour arbitrage or efficiency innovations that had taken away jobs through mechanisations. This positive test strategy failed to ask the reverse questions: people did not consider the opposite –had there been new opportunities? With a big common enemy (China, Mexico), stagnation of job creation, a man who had successfully beaten the system vowed to fix it and made it a compelling case of persuasion. According to Prospect Theory[8], the work that got Daniel Kahneman his Nobel prize, people in a loss frame of mind are likely to take riskier (all or nothing) decisions and that was one reason why the electorate was ready to take a gamble. Howard Gardner, mentioned earlier, did not distinguish between good and bad leaders from the perspective of social outcomes, he focussed on their effectiveness of their influencing. It just so happened that Trump was more effective as a leader - that he was able to create new stories that successfully wrestled and won over the existing ideas that populated the minds of his (new) followers”. Bottom line, he did a better job of getting his stories across. Not all victories are idiosyncratic Nationalism is up in India, in the UK, and now in countries like France, Holland and Austria. It's a trend Trump had picked up a long time ago. He shared these views early on in 2000[9], when he considered standing for president with the liberal reform party. Trump had been in touch with his electoral base for a while. People believed his Jacksonian politics - that the US should not take the lead in esoteric global problems just because US always has. And if you think that this is a bolt out of the blue, here is a man who has been consistent with his message on what he would do as a president from the 1980’s. Have a look at this video to see the consistency of Trump’s message: The long road to the white house from 1980 to 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCabT_O0YSM He just managed to increase that significantly to include what is called the “Springsteen” democratic base that effectively elected him. In the end his leadership persona as a change inspiring, authentic, and persuasive leader trumped that of Hillary’s. Viren Lall, FRSA, Managing Director, ChangeSchool www.changeschool.org  ChangeSchool expertise and latest published work [1] Is President Trump a sign of our times, Randall Peterson https://www.london.edu/faculty-and-research/lbsr/is-president-trump-a-sign-of-the-times#.WDNEoGSLQ6U [2] The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York; Robert Caro, Published by Bodley Head, 2015 [3] Professor of Education at Harvard Graduate School, Adjunct professor of Neurology of at the Boston University School of Medicine. Author of fourteen books on leadership [4] From his seminal work Leading Minds[1]: An Anatomy of Leadership written in 1995 [5] Switch: How to change things when change is hard, Chip and Dan Heath, 2011, Published by Random House Business Books [6] Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? What It Takes To Be An Authentic Leader by Rob Goffee (Author), Gareth Jones (Author) [7] Robert Cialdini was most famous for his previous work [8]  (Kahneman and Tversky 1979). [9] And contrary to popular belief, Trump did not decide to stand for President, post the humiliation he received from President Obama at the 2011 correspondents dinner

30 January 2017
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